Spawning sockeye salmon make their way up the Adams River near Chase, B.C. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward
Pacific salmon are one of Canada’s iconic creatures. Each summer, they complete their, on average, four- to five-year-long life cycle by returning from their rich ocean feeding grounds to the creeks and streams where they were born. Here, following in the “footsteps” of their parents, they will lay eggs, die and give rise to the next generation of salmon.
This transit from freshwater to the sea and back again is sometimes thousands of kilometres long. It can also be treacherous — the fish must navigate steep river rapids and avoid voracious predators.
But the trek is only being made harder by unnatural challenges. Humans continue to dam and pollute rivers, overfish and introduce invasive plants and animals. And this is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how humans are profoundly reshaping fresh waters in Canada and around the world.
For our research on the migration and conservation of Pacific salmon, we have looked at how freshwater ecosystems — lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands — are changing around the globe. Society has its finger on the pulse of the oceans, but what about our too often forgotten fresh waters?
Lakes and rivers in crisis
While fresh waters make up just a fraction (0.01 per cent) of all the water on the planet, they are home to nearly 10 per cent of the Earth’s known animal species, including one third of all vertebrates (anything with a backbone). There are even more species of fish in freshwater ecosystems than there are in the ocean.
This picture is, sadly, changing quickly. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) recently published the “Living Planet Report 2018,” showing that freshwater species loss is more severe than species declines on land or in the ocean.
Alarmingly, populations of freshwater species on average have declined by more than 80 per cent in 50 years, while populations of land-dwellers and ocean creatures have fallen by less than half that.
Clearly, fresh waters are in crisis with worsening trends over the past decade. But why?
Threats: The dirty dozen
Scientists know that damming, polluting, overfishing and introducing new species are changing “waterscapes” around the world, and impeding the survival of animals like Pacific salmon. We have known about these threats to freshwater biodiversity for at least a dozen years.
But a lot can change in 12 years — and it has. With an international team of some of the world’s leading freshwater scientists, our new study documents a dozen threats — some new, some growing — to freshwater species:
- A rapidly changing climate
- Online wildlife trade and invasive species
- Infectious disease
- Toxic algae blooms
- Hydropower damming and fragmenting of half the world’s rivers
- Emerging contaminants, such as hormones
- Engineered nanomaterials
- Microplastic pollution
- Light and noise interference
- Saltier coastal freshwaters due to sea level rise
- Calcium concentrations falling below the needs of some freshwater organisms
- The additive — and possibly synergistic — effects of these threats
Our team fears that fresh waters continue to be overlooked. These mounting threats and rapid species losses are taking place below the water’s surface — out of sight and out of mind.
“This is a silent, invisible tragedy that attracts far too little interest,” said Steve Ormerod, a freshwater ecologist from Cardiff University, in Wales, U.K., and one of our team members.
We hope to change this narrative by drawing attention to these 12 critical threats.
We need action on these threats — now.
Hope on the horizon?
This is a lot to take in. It may feel like there are no solutions that will change the trajectory for freshwater species. Fortunately, that is not the case and we highlight opportunities for conservation gains.
New scientific tools are changing the way we monitor freshwater populations. Environmental DNA, for example, may soon allow us to use a single water sample to identify all the fish in a watershed — without ever seeing the species.
Other approaches, including the use of “environmental flows” (e-flows) to manage the flow of water below a dam, dam removal as well as fishways let fish like Pacific salmon circumnavigate some of the barriers we have created.
But the solution does not rest solely with technological advancements to reverse past errors. We need to meet the freshwater needs of both people and nature by changing the way we treat fresh waters, for example, through our day-to-day actions, by joining or supporting the Alliance for Freshwater Life and pressing our governments to join the global effort to preserve freshwater.
About The Author
Andrea Jane Reid, PhD Candidate, Carleton University and Steven J Cooke, Canada Research Chair & Professor, Carleton University
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Freshwater Marshes was first published in 1994. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.
Prairie potholes, wetland edges of lakes and rivers, and other freshwater marshes play a vital role in maintaining a clean and plentiful water supply for wildlife and human use. These wetland areas provide habitat for spawning fish, feed waterfowl, purify and retain water, and control erosion. In this updated third edition, Milton W. Weller describes the components of the freshwater marsh: its annual and seasonal dynamics as affected by rainfall cycles and the plant and animal population's response to such changes. Weller discusses how such wetland areas are managed for wildlife populations and diversity, and how such processes can be used in wetland conservation and restoration. He considers the impact society has on wetlands and offers conservation goals for freshwater wetland complexes.Weller broadens the third edition to include an analysis of how prairie wetlands compare in water dynamics with swamps, tidal marshes, and other wetlands. He also expands the discussion of wetland classification, evaluation, mitigation, and restoration, and introduces a new glossary of current wetland terminology.
Freshwater Marshes is Volume 1 of Wildlife Habitats.
Milton W. Weller is professor emeritus and former Kleberg Chair in Wildlife Ecology, at Texas A&M University.
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There are over 1,000 species of freshwater fishes in North America. With refinements in aquaculture, the most popular game fish including largemouth and smallmouth bass, trout and salmon, bluegill, crappies, and catfish-are now stocked in rivers, ponds and lakes throughout the U.S. and Canada. This beautifully illustrated, pocket-sized reference guide reviews 39 of the most popular and sought-after species.